*Manifestos – **A public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government or protest activist);   **A written declaration of intent or principles; Statements such as:

The Sermon On The Mount (Matthew 5-7, AD 30) and The Sermon On The Plain (Luke 6)

Ray Catron   &   Dylan Benjamin

Magna Carta, 1215

Michelle Menjivar

Declaration of Independence, 1776

Erin Sturdevant & Erika Marquez


The Bill of Rights, 1791 and The Second Bill of Rights, 1944

Adriana Gutierrez &         Salvador Diaz

An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, 1786


David Walker’s Appeal, 1829

Benjamin Montero  &  Melchor Guerrero


Memorial of the Cherokee, 1830

Miguel Chase

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July, 1852

Judy Pham  &  Phillip Cargin


The Speech of Miss Polly Baker, 1747

Christina Aulicino  &  Deanna Tulikihihifo


Seneca Falls Declaration on Women’s Rights, 1848

Olivia White  &  Natalia Balestra


Ain’t I a Woman? 1851

Kareema Anderson  &  Merien Reyes

The Communist Manifesto, 1848


A House Divided, (Abraham Lincoln, 1858)

Heather Pettit  &  Norma Ambriz


Cross of Gold (William Jennings Bryan, 1896)

Julie Fairbanks


Declaration of Principles of the Niagara Movement — The Niagara Movement Manifesto, 1905


The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism (Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, 1909)


Credo – Affirmation of Faith, 1920

Alaina D’Anna


The International Jew (Henry Ford, 1921)

Javier Gonzalez  &  Samantha Burd


Scopes Monkey Trial Summation (Not delivered – William Jennings Bryan, 1925)


The Bonus Army (1932) — GI Bill Of Rights

James Young


Port Huron Statement of Students for a Democratic Society, 1962


The Southern Manifesto, (Strom Thurmond, 1956); The Birmingham Pledge (1998)


We March Today for Jobs and Freedom – I Have A Dream, (John Lewis; Martin Luther King, Jr. 1963)

Susana Perez  &   Soraida Rodriguez

Resources for “We march today For jobs and Freedom”

Resources for “I have a Dream”




The Ballot or the Bullet – Malcolm X Speech, 1964

Victoria Anaya  &  Crystal Filatoff

The Feminine Mystique – Betty Friedan (1963)


National Organization for Women’s Statement of Purpose, 1966

Kagina Lot


Che Guevara Speech to the United Nations – Colonialism Is Doomed

Diego Turoldo


The Cyrus Cylinder – The First Declaration of Human Rights, 539 BC  // The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

Yesenia Hernandez

Scientists’ Petition Against the Use of the Atomic Bomb, 1945

A. Martinez  &  D. Flores


Declaration of Indigenous Peoples of the Western Hemisphere Regarding the Human Genome Diversity Project, 1995

Academic Bill of Rights (David Horowitz, 2003); and Joint Statement on Rights and Freedoms of Students (AAUP, 1967)

The Millennium Project;

Reuben Hernandez  &  Luis Soto


The Time to Act Is Now (November 3, 2005) – Al Gore –

Elvira Alvarado  &  Michael Duran

Not In Our Name, 2005 and Declaration of Impeachment, (Veterans For Peace – July 4, 2005)

Art, Truth & Politics, (Harold Pinter – Nobel Lecture, 2005)

Ruben Medina


Theory of Evolution/Intelligent Design (The Original Statement by the Dover School Board/The Ruling of Judge John E. Jones, 2005)

Veronica Gonzalez &  Daniella Mims


“…In all of this, neutrality is a pose for the simple reason that the state itself cannot be neutral in matters pertaining to the public good. That is what the activists on opposing sides of the cultural divide understand well: across a wide swath of social life, the state makes binding decisions affecting the whole of society, in the name of society itself. To formulate law and policy, then, is to create and sustain a normative universe that draws distinctions, discriminates, judges, excludes as well as includes – it is, in short, to take sides on the matter of the public good.”

James Davison Hunter, “Culture Wars Revisited” in Insight, Spring 2004.



Manifestos – **A public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government or protest activist); **A written declaration of intent or principles; Statements such as:

MANIFESTO GUIDELINES: In a 10 minute presentation:

Introduction: Give a brief introduction (being sure to identify yourselves, the title of the Manifesto, the writers/creators of the Manifesto, the date of the document, and the context of its creation);

1. Text Presentation: Present an oral reading of the Manifesto (selected excerpts, if necessary, for the time limitation);

2. Subtext, conclusion, and aesthetic response: End with a conclusion that includes questions raised by the Manifesto (which should be entered as a question for discussion on the class website)

and an aesthetic response to the Manifesto;

3. Provide the class with a one-page Resource Guide (bibliography; filmography; webliography) for further study of the Manifesto

ESSAY For Mid-Term:   (This essay should have been prepared at home.   Hand it in with the completed mid-term)
Identify FOUR of the Manifestos that have made an impact upon you (other than your own).   What impact did they make, and why?   How effective was the aesthetic component of the presentations?   How do the four presentations relate to any of the theories of protest and aesthetics and other issues presented in class readings (e.g. Davis; Thoreau; hooks; Caldwell)?



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