Humanities 312/05 (#20808) Key Movements – The Arts And Social Protest
3 units; Spring Semester, 2011
Class Meetings: Mondays and Wednesdays, 11:30 am – 12:45 pm; SCC-601
Office Hours: Mondays & Wednesdays: 2:00 pm – 4 :00 pm
Instructor: Dr. Hansonia L. Caldwell – 310/243-2463 – Faculty Office: LIB – F507
Mail Received at Humanities Department: LCH A338 (310/243-3543)
Class Web Site: http://www.theikoro.com
This section of HUM 312 will examine the phenomenon of the arts and social protest from a humanistic, interdisciplinary perspective. It will provide students with an understanding of historical and contemporary views of social protest in the voices of musicians, dancers, visual and media artists, and poets. The course will study examples of music, dance, drama, literature, film and visual arts expressions of social protest within global communities.
Prerequisite: Completion of lower-division Humanities requirement (including Humanities 200 or equivalent and two other courses). Note that upper division integrative coursework must be taken after 60 semester units and the lower division components of General Education (or their equivalent) have been completed.
GENERAL EDUCATION/CLASS OBJECTIVES
As it states in the University Catalog, students completing the General Education program will have:
a. achieved the ability to think clearly and logically, to find information from a variety of sources and examine it critically, to communicate effectively orally and in writing, and to reason quantitatively and qualitatively.
b. acquired appreciable knowledge about their own bodies and minds, about how human society has developed and how it now functions, about the physical world in which they live, about the other forms of life with which they share that world, and about the cultural endeavors and legacies of their civilizations/
c. come to an understanding and appreciation of the principles, methodologies, value systems, and thought; processes employed in human inquiries.
Please note that, per the Dominguez Hills Catalogue, General Studies in the Humanities is to provide:
- Cultural knowledge
- Historical knowledge
- Aesthetic/perceptual training
- Critical discipline
- Opportunities for creativity
- A force for synthesis
This course meets the requirements for FI Upper Division Integrative Studies in the Humanities. Upon completing this course the student should have achieved the following general integrative studies objectives:
a. understand the relationships among the various disciplines that comprise the humanities
b. place these relationships within an historical context
c. relate the humanities to modern life.
d. cultivate his/her imaginative and synthesizing powers through aesthetic and intellectual activities.
Specifically, the aim of this course is to enable the student to achieve the following:
a. understanding of how social movements have shaped our politics and our culture in the past and in modern life;
b. knowledge of historical/cultural texts and contexts;
c. development of critical and imaginative thinking, writing, reading, and speaking skills.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (linked to GE objectives FI 1-4, in student-centered and measurable terms). Upon completion of this course, students in this Arts and Social Protest course will
- be able to demonstrate the connections between individual works of art and the societies within which the works are created and discuss the meaning of the works from interdisciplinary perspectives, including cultural, social, historical and political contexts;.
- identify, describe, and analyze a variety of historic and contemporary issues which have domestic and/or international implications that generate aesthetic response;
- develop an understanding and appreciation for more than one view of contemporary issues through reading assignments, discussions, class presentations;
- demonstrate a knowledge of the conceptual frameworks, methods, and aesthetic values of the arts
- develop the tools with which to critically analyze and aesthetically respond to social and political issues;
- cultivate the ability to read analytically, write effectively, listen critically, and speak clearly, and demonstrate an ability to make informed and well-reasoned judgments;
- cultivate the ability to utilize computer technology to store, analyze, interpret, and communicate information
TEXTBOOKS AND REQUIRED MATERIALS:
Hansonia Caldwell. African American Music – Spirituals. An Introduction to the Fundamental Folk Music of Black Americans. Third edition, 2003. Culver City: IKORO Communications, 2003. (For March 9, 14 & 16)
Ossie Davis. Life Lit By Some Large Vision: Selected Speeches and Writings. New York: Atria Books, 2006.
bell hooks – Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representations. 1994. Paperback (For February 28, March 2 & March 7)
T. V. Reed. The Art of Protest: Culture and Activism from the Civil Rights Movement to the Streets of Seattle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2005.
Henry David Thoreau. Walden and other Writings by Henry David Thoreau. Edited by Joseph Wood Krutch. (1854) New York: Bantam Classic books. 1962; 1981. (For February 28 & 23)
Arts and Social Protest Forum – http://www.TheIKORO.com
The Art of Protest
Social Movement & Culture: http://culturalpolitics.net/social_movements/
“Guernica” — http://web.org.uk/picasso/guernica.html
“Guernica” — http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/study.history.html
James Abbington, ed. Readings in African American Church Music and Worship. Chicago: GIA Publications, 2001.
James M. Jasper. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago. The University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Ian Peddie, ed. The Resisting Muse: Popular Music and Social Protest. Vermont and England, 2006.
Jeffrey D. Mason. Stone Tower: The Political Theater of Arthur Miller. (University of Michigan Press). 2008
The Eisenhower Foundation – http://www.eisenhowerfoundation.org
Lift Every Voice: Music In American Life – www2.lib.virginia.edu/exhibits/music/protest
COURSE REQUIREMENTS (Fulfillment of course objectives will be evaluated through 4 assignments; 2 exams; participation/attendance)
1. One Short Paper (at least 1500 words each)
2. One Personal Protest Presentation or Community Service Activity that spotlights your commitment in the area of social and political protest & persuasion
3. Participate on one class panel
4. One Reflections Journal
5. Mid-Term Exam (Short answer & essay)
6. Final Exam (Essay)
7. Class Participation (& Manifesto Presentation)
One Short Paper 15%
Personal Protest 10%
Panel Presentation 12%
One Reflections Journal 14%
Mid-Term Essay 20%
Final Essay 12%
Requests for incompletes will only be considered for students who have completed at least one-half of all course requirements. Applications for an Incomplete must be submitted in writing only. Your application must include a statement that explains the reasons an incomplete should be granted; otherwise a grade of F will result.
Evaluation of all written assignments is based upon the following:
- Vocabulary should be precise and accurate.
- Ideas and issues should be fully developed.
- Observations should be organized into a logical sequence.
- Grammar, syntax, spelling and punctuation should be correct.
- Content should be logical and well-organized and sufficiently detailed.
- Text should be free of jargon and cliches.
- A bibliography that includes a minimum of four books should be provided, as appropriate.
- Text should be word processed or typewritten and double spaced.
- Please proofread.
- Written work must be submitted on the dates due.
Evaluation of oral presentations is based upon both the written assignment criteria and the following:
- Evidence of understanding
- Volume – Projection
- Voice inflection
- Posture and presence
- Eye contact
ASSIGNMENT #1 — PAPER GUIDELINES
TOPIC: What are the fundamental elements of culture and aesthetics, and how are these elements used in the presentation of social and political protest and persuasion?
In the essay, respond to questions such as: Using a historical framework, how has culture reflected ethics, values and politics? How have community activists and educators used the arts as an educative, consciousness-raising force?
Incorporate examples in your essay (See Vision Statement). Identify an artist who effectively merges the arts and activism. Choose a work of art that represents an activist statement. Identify specific features in the art and explain how these have been used on behalf of advocacy. Include specific examples from class presentations and/or assigned texts.
The essay should be a minimum of six pages, typed or word-processed – no less than 1,500 words. Vocabulary should be precise and accurate. Ideas and issues should be focused and fully developed. Text should be documented, using the assigned class texts, class lectures, and appropriate scholarly sources. Observations should be organized into a logical sequence. Grammar, syntax, spelling and punctuation should be correct. Content should be logical, well-organized and sufficiently detailed. Text should be free of jargon and cliches. Include a bibliography.that provides citation of the class texts and other resources, using appropriate MLA or APA form.
You may obtain special assistance in the preparation of a paper through a special campus resource – The Center for Learning and Academic Support Services (CLASS).
DUE: (March 16)
ASSIGNMENT #2 REFLECTIONS JOURNAL
Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. - Margaret Mead
The Reflections Journal is to be a chronicle of the student in-class and out-of-class Spring semester experience with the arts and social protest. Particular focus should be placed upon the in-class session days; however, any day that includes an experience that can be related to the class can also be included in the overall record.
Prepare one-paragraph to one-page reflections for each entry by critiquing, questioning, and/or enlarging, the experience of the day. What are the challenges, opportunities and consequences posed by the issue that is being protested? Feel free to include aesthetic rejoinders to the protests – of the day. The first entry should be biographical – name; major; experience with social protest. The completed Journal should include entries for at least 20 days.
What are the challenges, opportunities, and consequences posed in the reading and the assignments.
Through this writing assignment the student should demonstrate writing, critical and creative thinking abilities. In the Reflections Journal assignment, students are expected to demonstrate the ability to develop informed opinions and to separate opinion from fact. The Journal will be graded on the basis of substantive writing, insight, and thoroughness.
Due: May 18
ASSIGNMENT #3 – Class Participation consists of student participation in class discussions in class and on the Arts and Social Protest Forum – http://www.TheIKORO.com.
For the grade in attendance and class participation, students are also expected to be present and prepared for all class sessions, and to meet all assignment deadlines.
Students are expected to contribute in a constructive manner to the class dialogue. This includes a Manifesto Presentation (made in partnership with another student).
Choose a topic from the listing in the Evolving Class Vision Statement. In a 10 minute presentation:
- Introduction: Give a brief introduction (being sure to identify yourselves, the title of the Manifesto, the writers/creators of the Manifesto, the date of the document, and the context of its creation);
- Text Presentation: Present an oral reading of the Manifesto (selected excerpts, if necessary, for the time limitation);
- Subtext, conclusion, and aesthetic response: End with a conclusion that includes questions raised by the Manifesto and an aesthetic response to the Manifesto;
- Provide the class with a one-page Resource Guide (bibliography; filmography; webliography) for further study of the Manifest
Personal Protest or Community Service Activity that spotlights your commitment in the area of social and political protest & persuasion. The presentation of an individual aesthetic expression of protest –– (e.g. the creation of a work of Protest Art).
POSSIBLE ARTISTIC EXPRESSION AND ACTIVISM TOPICS FOR CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING – PERSONAL PROTEST PRESENTATIONS
- The abuse of children
- The abuse of animals
- The abuse of women
- The apology
- The relationship of the arts to violence
- Art about religion
- The Black Male
- Bilingual education
- The California Youth Authority (cages for children)
- Cell phones
- Censorship/freedom of speech/freedom of expression
- Class in America
- Child labor
- Child soldiers
- The Confederate flag
- The death penalty
- The economy& unions
- The environment/Global warming
- The environment/Wildlife conservation
- Environmental Justice
- The Global Economy
- Government regulation
- Gun Control
- Health care
- Islam and women
- The Islamic Revolution in Iran
- Katrina Recovery
- Media images
- Mining safety
- Nuclear waste
- The Patriot Act
- Penitentiary Population
- Police brutality
- The politics of Cuba
- Prayer in the schools
- Public celebration of holidays
- Public support of education
- Science and ethics
- Security and the Internet
- Slavery in the 21st Century
- Supporting the armed forces and their families
- The Supreme Court
- Television for children
- Terrorism and the arts response
- 20th and 21st century slavery
- Undocumented immigration in the United States and Europe/(“No Human Is Illegal Campaign”)
- The Veterans Administration
ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION: Note that protest art is art created in response to a particular event or perceived injustice. Identify an issue associated with a protestable situation. State your opinion on the issue (together with at least 4 facts that support your opinion). What are the challenges, opportunities and consequences posed by the issue that is being protested? Write a social action/protest song or create a work of visual, poetic, movement or dramatic art that expresses and reinforces your feelings and opinions. Students may explore the use of metaphorical imagery and contradictory juxtaposition of ideas and imagery. Make sure you include a title that reflects the theme of your aesthetic creation, and respond to the question: How does your presentation reflect the perspective of Ossie Davis, or bell hooks?
ASSIGNMENT #5 – PANELS ( up to 5 students per panel)
- 1. The Response of Drama, Dance and visual Arts to the Civil Rights Movement – Reed, Chapter 1
- 2. The Arts and the Black Power Movement – Reed, Chapter 2
- 3. Women’ Rights & the Arts — Reed, Chapter 3
- 4. Social Activism and Historical Commentary in Mexican American-Chicano/a Art and Music – Reed, Chapter 4
- 5. History and Social Commentary As Presented in Film – Reed, Chapter 5
- 6. Social Commentary in the Lyrics of Rock Music — Reed, Chapter 6
- 7. Arts and AIDS — Reed, Chapter 7
- 8. Environmental Justice — Reed, Chapter 8
- 9. Will the Revolution Be Cybercast? – Reed, Chapter 9
10. The Artistic Response to War – 1950 – 2005
11. Community, National and International Memorials
12. The Voice of Protest in Hip Hop Culture
Each student will be assigned to a team for one of the above topics. Each team will be responsible for preparing a 30 minute presentation on the assigned topic. Each Panel will focus upon the topic and include creative art examples. Define the specific issue(s), examine different opinions about the issues and show how these issues are translated into an aesthetic statement. Group presentations should be enhanced by visual aids and handouts. Handouts must include an outline of the presentation, a bibliography, discography and webliography. Additionally, students should provide some type of resource display. For example, students could design a large poster for the presentation; set up a book exhibit; design a board game; create a historical newspaper for the topic; choose a theme song for the presentation; create an informative newscast on the topic, create bookmarks; create collages; create a puppet show; write poems; write correspondence (or a play) as a specific person from the period.
Each team should make an appointment with Dr. Caldwell for help in preparing their presentation. The grade for the Team will be based on ratings of each individual’s work, ratings of the team’s overall work, and a written evaluation by each participant of their own as well as other team member’s work.
PANEL PRESENTATION GUIDELINES
- Present an overview of the specific social issue. What are the moral and ethical questions posed in the debate about the issue? Be certain to differentiate between fact and opinion in presenting the issue. Identify questions about facts or concepts emanating from the issue that need clarification.
- Introduce artists who address the issue through their art. Analyze the values expressed by the artists. What is the context for the creation of their art? What are the codes found in the art? What are the explicit messages in the art? What is the subtext of the art? What are the implicit messages in the art? What questions are raised by the art?
- What has been the impact of the art on culture? What has been the impact of the art on you, the presenter? How are the consequences of human intentions influenced by the means of carrying them out?
- Incorporate the class Vision Statement, and use the language of culture and aesthetics within the presentation.
- Prepare & distribute a Presentation Outline for the class.
- Use a variety of sources to gather information. Provide primary source documentation of the issue being addressed. Provide an introduction to the expert secondary sources that have interpreted the art that has been presented. Consider the credibility and perspectives of the authors of the sources. Prepare and distribute a bibliography.
- Prepare visual & aural materials. Create a poster illustrating the issue.
1. Attendance Policy and Class Participation:
On-time class attendance is required. Please do not come into class late. Under normal circumstances, notify me ahead of time if you must miss class. More than three excused absences may result in a failing grade or the student being advised to withdraw from the course. Leaving class early will also be noted and could affect your final grade.
For the grade in attendance and class participation, students are expected to be present and prepared for all class sessions, and to meet all assignment deadlines. Announcements made in class apply to all students. Students are expected to allow themselves to be open to new ideas, concepts and experiences which this course may introduce. Discussion and questions are encouraged. Students are expected to contribute in a constructive and professional manner to the class dialogue. Private conversations should take place outside class time. Please turn OFF cell phones and pagers when entering the classroom (or place them in a non-audible mode).
2. WITHDRAWAL POLICY: Withdrawals during the final three weeks of instruction are not permitted except in cases such as an accident or serious illness where the circumstances causing the withdrawal are clearly beyond the student’s control and the assignment of an incomplete is not practical.
3. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY – HONOR CODE: It is expected that students will abide by the standards of academic integrity stated in the university catalog. Each student must work independently on each assignment and paper unless otherwise instructed in writing by the professor. Any attempt to submit someone else’s work, words, or ideas as if they were your own is plagiarism, which may result in a “zero” for the assignment, an “F” for the course, or referral to the appropriate university administrator. This includes ANY AND ALL material from the Internet, papers of other students, and material from a text or any other book. Conviction on the charge of plagiarism can be grounds for a student’s suspension or expulsion from the university.
Students who study together for exams should not sit next to one another during the exam.
ACCOMODATION OF DISABLED STUDENTS – SPECIAL NEEDS
If an accommodation is needed for any type of documented physical or learning disability, students are asked to meet with the instructor at the beginning of the semester to discuss the necessary modifications.
Henry David Thoreau – Civil Disobedience READING QUESTIONS
- What is Thoreau’s experience with taxation?
- What is Thoreau’s experience in prison? Describe the daily life.
- What is government?
- Is it possible for a government to govern not at all?
- Does Thoreau really want no government?
- What does Thoreau think of the Constitution?
- What does Thoreau think of the relationship of the Constitution and slavery?
- What are the two main issues that caused Thoreau to be so upset with government?
- What does Thoreau feel is the alternative to majority rule?
- When is a minority powerless?
- What is a standing army? How does it relate to morality?
- How does this essay relate to The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
- Is there a right of revolution?
- Is there such a thing as absolute goodness?
- Who has God on their side?
- How does one separate the diabolical from the divine within him or herself?
- Should one obey an unjust law?
- How tenable is Thoreau’s case for Civil Disobedience? Is he arguing that we should break the law whenever we think it unjust? What safeguards against such arbitrary and individualistic politics does he assert or imply?
- What does Thoreau think of as the relationship between wealth, wisdom and morality?
- What is Truth? Is it the same as legal Truth?
- What does Thoreau see as the relationship between Truth and eloquence?
- What does Thoreau see as the relationship between Truth and legislation?
- How do you respond to Thoreau’s questions: Is a democracy, such as we know it, the last improvement possible in government? Is it not possible to take a step further towards recognizing and organizing the rights of man?
HUMANITIES 314 – READING QUESTIONS
OUTLW CULTURE – RESISTING REPRESENTATIONS….bell hooks
Introduction – Who is bell hooks?
Chapter 3 – “What’s Passion Got To Do With It”
- Did you identify everyone in the essay?
- Do you go to the movies?
- What films does hooks incorporate in this essay?
- Do you agree with Ms. Hooks’ assessment of these films?
- What is society’s current “dream of transformation?”
- What themes emerge across all the films she discusses?
- What’s passion got to do with it? Why does bell hooks think it is dangerous to be passionate in the United States?
- What does she think is the price of fame?
- Where do you cultivate your own genius?
- How does hooks define redemptive love?
- Describe Ms. Hooks’ use of language.
Chapter 5 – “Censorship From Left and Right”
- What is censorship?
- What is free speech?
- What re bourgeois class values?
- Who are the “secret police”?
- Describe the relationship between the elders and the young in the debates that bell hooks identifies.
- Why do marginalized groups fear dissent?
- How do the issues raised herein compare to the debate that raged over the film Barbershop? Can you think of any other examples?
AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSIC – SPIRITUALS – READING QUESTIONS
1. What are the scholarly debates about African cultural retentions?
2. How was music used as a tool by enslavers?
3. What is the theological justification of enslavement?
4. What is the “invisible church”?
5. Define the Spiritual.
6. What is oral tradition?
7. Who are the Griots? In Africa? In the United States?
8. What is call and response?
9. What is a Ring shout and into what does it evolve?
10. Define and describe the work song.
11. What is a Holler?
12. What is the Black Aesthetic?
13. How do Spirituals express nommo?
14. Describe the use of biblical language in the Spiritual.
15. What is Exodus theology?
16. What theological themes are addressed in the lyrics of the Spirituals? Give examples.
17. What is the Narrative Spiritual?
18 Explain the literal and figurative meaning of the Spiritual Go Down Moses.
19. Why is the Christmas Spiritual so rare?
20. Explain the literal and figurative meaning of the Spiritual Didn’t My Lord Deliver Daniel.
21. Describe the sociology of the Spiritual.
22. Describe the use of code language in the Spiritual.
23. Who were the early documenters of the Spiritual?
24. When did the “Jubilee song” emerge?
25. Who is Thomas Wentworth Higginson and why is his work important?
26. What have been the challenges faced by those who work to preserve the Spiritual?
27. Who is W. E. B. DuBois and why is his work important to the understanding of the Spiritual?
28. What are the performance practice debates that surround the Spiritual?
29. How are the Spirituals related to the Historically Black Colleges and Universities?
30. How have the Spirituals inspired the creation of new poetry?
31. How are the Spirituals related to the Blues?
32. How are the Spirituals related to Jazz?
33. How are the Spirituals related to Gospel Music?
34. How are the Spirituals related to Professional Dance?
35. Describe the relationship of the Spiritual and the emergence of a Nationalistic voice in the European Classical music of the United States.
36. Describe the organizational support of the Spiritual.
37. Who are the major choral arrangers of the Spiritual?
38. Who are the major solo performers of the Spiritual?
39. How have the Spirituals been used as a musical voice for protest?
- How pervasive has the Spiritual become in American society, and what do Spirituals mean to Americans today?
- How did you feel about what you read? Why do you think you reacted the way that you did?
Ossie Davis – Life Lit By Some Large Vision READING QUESTIONS
- What does Davis feel is the relationship between free men and the Bill of Rights?
- Why does Davis feel that “the English Language is my enemy”? What does he mean when he suggests that “the English language must become democratic”?
- Why is theatre important, and what is the responsibility of an actor?
- What is the context for the “On the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.” speech; what was the subtext?
- What does Davis feel is the mission of the Black Caucus?
- What was the Davis experience with and response to blacklisting?
- What is a talking drum?
- Who are the heroes of the “World of Hunger and Me” speech?
- Who were the mentors of Davis at Howard University?
- What did Davis learn from writing “Purlie Victorious?” What does the closing monologue from “Purlie Victorious” mean?
Humanities 314 – MANIFESTO PRESENTATION
Evaluation & Grade
Organization of Presentation – The extent of preparedness and flow of presentation: ____
Text Presentation: ________________________________________
Subtext & Conclusion: _____________________________________
Clarity of Presentation/Oral Communication – (volume; voice inflection; posture; presence; eye contact) : _________________________________________________
Quality, Accuracy and Comprehensiveness of Research (including Resource Guide); Evidence of Understanding: ______________________________________________
Aesthetic Response – Creativity/Imagination: _________________________________
Insight – How well does your creative imagination and substance blend together to give a sound, accessible understanding of the Manifesto: __________________
Overall Completeness of Presentation: ____________________________________
HUMANITIES/MUSIC – PAPER EVALUATION – Dr. Hansonia Caldwell
Content: Accuracy – Logic - Clarity – Adequate definition of terms -
Thorough development of topic — Completeness ___________________
Content: Responsive to the specific assignment;
Sufficiently detailed — ___________________
Organization - Structure/Form — with introduction, body
and non-repetitive conclusion – Effective Transitions –
Creativity – Analysis – Interpretation – Convincing use of evidence
and examples – Interesting, concise language: ___________________
Grammar – Subject/Verb Agreement – Syntax – Paragraphing –
Pronoun/Antecedent agreement – Sentence Structure –
Article use – preposition use – Spelling – Punctuation: ___________________
Documentation – Sufficient, logical and convincing use of primary
and secondary sources – Well-chosen sources –
Appropriate use of supporting materials –
Appropriate use of reputable Web Sites –
Bibliography – in correct form: ____________________
Presentation – Format – Proofreading – Neatness: ____________________
(_____On time) (_____Late) GRADE: __________________
A = Excellent. Includes original, insightful ideas; persuasive reasoning; exceeds expectations & thoroughly and creatively addresses all aspects of the assignment; fluent style and excellent use of examples; excellent research; shows thorough comprehension of the ideas presented in class and in the reading; free of mechanical, grammatical and spelling errors
B = Good. Work is clearly written with good examples; no glaring or distracting errors; competent; shows some depth and complexity of thought; meets expectations
C = Satisfactory. Addresses the topic, but slights some aspects of the assignment; Work shows flaws in organization and limitations in comprehension of the ideas presented in class and in the reading; incomplete, shallow analysis and unsubstantiated generalizations; partially meets expectations with superficial responses and technical errors
D = Below average; flawed in some significant ways; distorts or neglects aspects of the assignment; does not meet expectations, lacks focus and reflects little understanding of the assignment; has significant factual and conceptual errors; too many grammatical errors; limited, trite vocabulary; shows lack of coherence; use of flawed logic; incomplete research; weak examples
F =Failing; does not fulfill the requirements of the assignment; lacks critical understanding of lectures, readings, and discussions; weak organization with simplistic generalizations; marred by serious and frequent grammatical errors; completely unacceptable